Audit Requirements for LLC And Joint Stock Company in 2024 | Process, Types & Benefits

Effective corporate governance depends on strict audit requirements, and in the context of Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) and Joint Stock Companies, it becomes more fundamental. AFD can help companies ensure that they meet all the audit requirements for LLCs and Joint Stock Companies.

What Is the Difference Between an LLC and a Joint Stock Company?

Limited Liability Company (LLC)Joint Stock Company
LLCs offer a flexible corporate structure. It combines liability shield with working simplicity. Members' assets are protected from business debts which encourages investor confidence.Joint Stock Companies are considered by share capital. It offers investors with possession through tradable shares. This structure encourages liquidity and enables capital raising in the modern market.
LLCs have a shortened management structure governed by an Operating Agreement. It permits members to supervise daily operations.Joint Stock Companies run under a board of directors. It adopts an ordered management approach and ensures tactical decision-making.
Tax flexibility is a trademark of LLCs. It permits members to select between pass-through taxation or corporate taxation. It adapts to distinct financial goals.Joint Stock Companies may issue several classes of shares. It allows strategic control distribution and variation of ownership.


What Are the Specific Audit Requirements for LLCs?

Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) run within an explicit legal basis that obligates accurate audit requirements to guarantee compliance, financial transparency, and obedience to regulatory standards stated by Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021. Here are some Specific Audit Requirements for LLCs;

Financial Reporting Standards

LLCs are mandated to follow strict financial reporting standards mentioned in Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021. This obligates the preparation and submission of correct financial statements yearly. It includes the company's financial status, performance, cash flows, and equity.

Compliance with Tax Regulations

Compliance with tax regulations is a main requirement of auditing for LLCs. The audit process safeguards thorough adherence to tax rules, appropriate documentation, and timely payment of taxes as per the conditions mentioned in Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021.

Member Equity and Capital Accounts Audit

Auditing member equity and capital accounts is important for LLCs. It includes validating the precision of member contributions, withdrawals, and supplies. This audit guarantees configuration with the business's Operating Agreement and the legal obligations set by Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021.

Valuation of Internal Controls

Audits in LLCs require a complete valuation of internal controls. This includes inspecting procedures, strategies, and systems to ensure operative risk management. It also checks the appropriate financial reporting and compliance with the rules.

Disclosure Requirements

LLCs are mandated to keep transparency through complete disclosures. Audits determine the precision and extensiveness of disclosures associated to;

  • Financial Statements
  • Business Operations
  • Correlated-Party Transactions
  • Contingent Liabilities 

They all should be under Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021.

Inspection of Operating Agreement Obedience

The audit process comprises a full inspection of the Operating Agreement to guarantee that the business's operations and financial decisions line up with the decided-upon terms among members. This inspection also guarantees obedience to both internal regulations and the predominant legal framework.

Record Keeping and Documentation

Keeping precise records and documentation is essential for LLCs. Audits validate the comprehensiveness and precision of records relating to;

  • Financial Transactions
  • Contracts
  • Agreements
  • Minutes Of Meetings

Compliance with Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021

Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021 helps as the foundation for regulatory compliance for LLCs. Audits explicitly focus on guaranteeing that the business operations, financial reporting, and governance practices line up with the terms and directives mentioned in this decree.

What Are the Specific Audit Requirements for a Joint Stock Company?

Joint Stock Companies, overseen by Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, run within an organized framework that also requires explicit audit requirements. Here are some Specific Audit Requirements for Joint Stock Companies;

Financial Reporting and Transparency

Joint Stock Companies are instructed to keep correct and transparent financial records. Audits emphasis on validating the precision and extensiveness of financial statements such as;

  • Balance Sheets
  • Income Statements
  • Cash Flow Statements

Compliance with accounting criteria and disclosure requirements is fundamental. It ensures that financial data is consistent and related to investors and stakeholders.

Shareholder Equity and Dividends

Audits in Joint Stock Companies precisely evaluate shareholder equity and dividend circulations. These valuations guarantee that dividends are circulated in conformity with legal requirements and company regulations. Certain factors are important to keep fairness and protect shareholder interests such as;

  • Verification Of the Capital Structure
  • Share Issuance
  • Buybacks
  • Dividend Payments 

Asset Evaluation and Depreciation

The evaluation of assets and suitable depreciation methods are obligatory components of audits in Joint Stock Companies. Audit firms in Dubai inspect the precision of asset valuation methods to guarantee that assets are documented at their fair values and depreciation is calculated properly. These all should be aligned with accounting criteria and regulatory rules.

Regulatory Filings and Disclosures

Obedience to regulatory filings and disclosures is an important audit requirement. Joint Stock Companies should have submitted reports and disclosures to governing bodies within definite timelines. Audit firms in Dubai validate the accuracy and comprehensiveness of these filings. It ensures obedience to legal obligations and transparency in corporate governance.

Board Governance and Decision-making

Audits in Joint Stock Companies emphasize board governance. It evaluates the efficiency of the board of directors in supervising the business's operations and strategic decision-making. This comprises assessing;

  • Independence of Directors
  • Qualifications
  • Committee Structures
  • Obedience to Ethical Standards

Internal Controls and Risk Management

Assessment of internal controls and risk management practices is essential. Audits examine the effectiveness of internal control systems in mitigating risks, safeguarding assets, and ensuring compliance with laws and regulations. This includes assessing the company's risk assessment processes and measures to manage identified risks.

Compliance with Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021

Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021 defined the framework for corporate governance and auditing criteria for Joint Stock Companies. Audits must guarantee severe compliance with this decree-law. It includes all features of corporate operations and reporting. 

What Are the Legal Audit Documents Required in LLC and Joint Stock Companies?

The following documents help support the auditing process that ensures companies obey legal and regulatory requirements in the whole audit process in LLCs And Joint Stock Companies.

DocumentsLLCJoint Stock Companies
Financial StatementsEssential

It includes income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements.


It includes complete financial records with full disclosures.

Minutes of MeetingsRecommended

It includes accounts decisions made during meetings among associates or managers.


It includes full records of stakeholder or board meetings and resolutions.

Tax FilingsEssential

It includes tax returns, statements, and secondary documentation for tax compliance.


It includes full tax filings in line with applicable tax laws.

Regulatory FilingsRequired

It includes compliance documents filed with national agencies or regulatory entities.


It includes filings with regulatory authorities regarding processes and financials.

Articles of OrganizationRequired

It includes an initial document outlining the LLC's structure, members, and administration.


It defines the company's establishment and operation values.

Operating AgreementEssential

It outlines the company's internal operations, member roles, and tasks.

Not mandatory

It is often substituted by decrees governing operations.

Also read: Documents Required For Audit Of Company

What Are the Types of Audits Conducted in LLC and Joint Stock Companies?

In obedience to Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, both Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) and Joint Stock Companies conduct several types of audits to guarantee compliance, transparency, and liability in their operations.

Here are the types of conducting audits:

Financial Audits

Financial audits are mandatory for both LLCs and Joint Stock Companies. These valuations investigate;

  • Financial statements
  • Validating accuracy
  • Obedience to accounting standards

For LLCs, this comprises inspecting the company's financial health. Joint Stock Companies, include the complex interaction of stakeholder equity and assets.

Compliance Audits

Compliance audits are important to ensure obedience to legal and regulatory obligations. LLCs and Joint Stock Companies must line up with federal laws mentioned in Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021. This includes;

  • Verifying Compliance with Tax Regulations
  • Validating Reporting Standards
  • Governing Corporate Guidelines

Operational Audits

Operational audits evaluate the competence and efficiency of internal processes within both LLCs and Joint Stock Companies. This includes;

  • Inspecting Daily Operations
  • Risk Management Protocols
  • Internal Control Systems

For LLCs, it guarantees efficient operations. While in Joint Stock Companies, include diverse business functions and their mutuality.

Internal vs. External Audits

Both LLCs and Joint Stock Companies conduct internal audits for continuing governance of internal controls. These internal audits include;

  • Check On the Company's Financial Health
  • Compliance Adherence
  • Operational Efficiency

External audits, conducted by independent audit firms in Dubai, offer an impartial assessment to authenticate accuracy and offer reliability to investors.

Specialized Audits

For both LLCs and Joint Stock Companies, specialized audits may be essential. This audit includes;

  • Forensic audits to inspect financial inconsistencies or fraud
  • IT audits to evaluate data security and system integrity
  • Sustainability audits to safeguard environmental and social accountability 

What is the Audit Process in LLC And Joint Stock Companies? 

Here is the step-by-step audit process in LLCs And Joint Stock Companies;

Initial Planning

The audit process begins with careful planning. The auditing team, often including internal or external auditors, cooperates with management to plan the audit's scope, purposes, and timelines. In the framework of Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, this step includes an in-depth evaluation of the legal and regulatory landscape of leading LLCs and Joint Stock Companies.

Understanding the Legal Framework

Given the active nature of rules, audit firms in Dubai investigate the essentials of Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021. This legal framework mentions the requirements and standards these companies must obey. It includes financial reporting, compliance requirements, and governance structures. Knowing these legal shades is important for audit firms in Dubai to adapt their approach efficiently.

Risk Assessment

Identifying and assessing risks is a cornerstone of the audit process. Auditors analyze the internal and external factors that could impact financial statements, compliance, and overall business operations. In compliance with Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, this includes a nuanced evaluation of how changes in regulations may pose risks and necessitate adjustments in audit methodologies.

Internal Controls Evaluation

Strong internal controls are important for precise financial reporting and compliance. Audit firms in Dubai inspect the internal control systems of LLCs and Joint Stock Companies to guarantee they alleviate risks effectively. Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021 highlights the importance of internal controls in nurturing transparency and accountability.

Financial Audits

At the fundamental of the audit process lies the financial audit. This includes a detailed inspection of financial statements. It ensures accuracy, extensiveness, and compliance with accounting standards.

Compliance Audits

Compliance audits evaluate Compliance with legal and regulatory obligations. In the framework of Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, audit firms in Dubai precisely inspect whether LLCs and Joint Stock Companies comply with tax rules, reporting standards, and corporate governance guidelines. This inspection guarantees that entities run within the limits set by the law.

Operational Audits

Operational audits assess the competence and effectiveness of internal processes beyond financials and compliance. This step comprises inspecting daily operations, risk management rules, and compliance with recognized procedures. The understanding gained from operational audits helps to improve overall business efficiency.

Audit Committees and Governance Structures

Audit committees play a key role in supervising the audit process. In both LLCs and Joint Stock Companies, the existence of an independent and capable audit committee is often instructed by regulatory frameworks of Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021. This committee guarantees that the audit process is conducted neutrally and in line with established criteria.

Documentation and Reporting

Full documentation is essential to the audit process. Audit firms in Dubai precisely record their findings, practices, and any inconsistencies discovered during the audit. The ultimate step includes the preparation and distribution of audit reports. In obedience to Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, these reports deliver a transparent account of the business’s financial health, compliance standing, and operational competence. 

What Are the Timelines and Audit Periods in LLCs and Joint Stock Companies?

Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021 specifies the timelines and audit periods that are;

FeatureLLCJoint Stock Companies
Annual Financial StatementsWithin 3 months (90 days) from the end of the financial yearWithin 3 months (90 days) from the end of the financial year
External Audit FrequencyOnce a yearOnce a year
Audit Period12 months from the previous audit12 months from the previous audit
Submission to AuthoritiesWithin 15 days after stakeholder approvalWithin 15 days after stakeholder approval


What Are the Benefits of Conducting Audits in LLCs and Joint Stock Companies?

Here are some important and prominent Benefits of Conducting Audits in LLCs and Joint Stock Companies;

Boosted Financial Transparency and Accountability

One of the main benefits of conducting audits is the boosted financial transparency and accountability. Audits in LLCs and Joint Stock Companies offer a complete analysis of a company's financial statements.

Compliance with Regulatory Standards

The regulatory landscape for LLCs and Joint Stock Companies is dynamic in Dubai, and compliance is firm. Audits help as a strong mechanism to guarantee obedience to Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021. It reduces legal risks and potential consequences. This inspection guarantees that financial practices line up with up-to-date regulations.

Effective Risk Management

Audits act as a practical tool for risk management. It classifies potential financial risks and anomalies. By evaluating internal controls and financial procedures, companies can proactively address weaknesses and alleviate the risk of errors, or financial misconduct.

Enhanced Corporate Governance

A well-conducted audit helps to the strength of corporate governance within LLCs and Joint Stock Companies. The inspection of financial procedures and controls guarantees that decision-makers have precise and consistent information. It enables well-versed strategic adoptions. 

Enhanced Investor Confidence

Investors and shareholders place huge value on businesses that subject themselves to consistent audits. Compliance with Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021 encourages confidence by showing a commitment to financial honor and transparency. This improves relationships with current investors and boosts the company's status in the Dubai market.

Precise Valuation and Financial Reporting

Precise financial reporting is key for evaluations and strategic decision-making. Audits safeguard that financial statements deliver a true and fair view of a company's financial health. This precision is essential for numerous purposes, such as funding, and compliance with accounting criteria.

Simplification of Access to Capital

Companies often need access to capital for development, innovation, or working needs. Audited financial statements in LLCs and Joint stock companies help as a key credential when looking for loans or attracting investors. It offers a credible assessment of the company's financial health so they have easy access to capital.

Prevention and Detection of Fraud

Fraud remains a continuous threat to businesses. Audits in LLCs and Joint stock companies play an essential role in fraud prevention and detection. It inspects financial transactions, internal controls, and financial reporting procedures. Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021 strengthens the need for an attentive approach to financial practices that makes audits an important constituent of an organization's anti-fraud actions.

Strengthening Internal Controls

Operative internal controls are important to financial integrity. Audits assess the competence and efficiency of internal controls. It classifies areas for development. This process improves the strength of internal control systems and decreases the probability of errors, fraud, and financial mishandling.

What Are the Challenges and Compliance Issues in Meeting Audit Requirements for Joint Stock and LLC Companies?

Conducting audits with requirements in compliance with Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021 presents numerous challenges and compliance issues for companies. These can significantly influence the efficiency of audits and pose problems to accomplishing complete compliance. Here are some Challenges and Compliance Issues in meeting Audit Requirements;

Regulatory Complexity

The developing nature of protocols, particularly under Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021, makes it a challenge for companies to understand and adjust to new compliance protocols. The complicated legal framework needs a careful understanding to ensure precise adherence. It often needs specialized expertise from Audit firms in Dubai such as Farahat & Co.… to understand and implement.

Resource Allocation

Suitable resource allocation poses a common challenge, particularly for smaller entities. Allotting adequate financial and human resources to accomplish audit compliance while harmonizing daily operations can be difficult. Limited resources might interrupt the diligence of audits and the ability to engage dedicated professionals for complete compliance.

Technical Integration

Integrating technical advancements into audit processes can be difficult. Adjusting systems to line up with digital audit tools and machinery stated by Federal Decree Law No. 32 of 2021 requires important investment and proficiency. Safeguarding data integrity, cybersecurity, and the active application of these technologies adds difficulty to compliance efforts.

Documentation and Record-Keeping

Keeping wide and precise documentation is a decisive aspect of audit compliance. Meeting the proper record-keeping requirements mentioned in the law demands proper attention. Insufficient or unreliable documentation can lead to non-compliance that poses substantial risks during audits.

International Standards Alignment

Companies involved in worldwide operations must comply with audit requirements under Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021 with international standards. But it presents challenges. Varying regulatory standards across different authorities at both local and international levels demand an in-depth understanding of diverse regulatory frameworks

Proactive Risk Management

Classifying and handling risks early is important for audit compliance. However, predicting potential risks and applying proactive risk management policies aligned with Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021 needs a complete understanding of the regulatory landscape and industry-explicit challenges. 


Conducting audits with requirements for LLCs and Joint Stock Companies requires careful obedience to developing regulatory landscapes under Federal Decree-Law No. 32 of 2021. Guaranteeing compliance includes several factors such as strategic resource allocation, technical integration, and practical risk management. To accomplish unified adherence, hiring trustworthy audit firms in Dubai like Farahat & Co. proves helpful. Their proficiency in directing Dubai's regulatory environment and their promise to brilliance make them a topmost choice for all-inclusive audit services. Associating with such audit firms in Dubai ensures compliance, adopts transparency, and improves the reliability of these corporate entities.


What Is the Audit Threshold for the UAE?

The audit threshold is the main decision of the corporate tax law. It shows the UAE's obligation to the comfort of doing business. Higher threshold of AED 50 million income for audited financials. It gives huge compliance relief to small and medium business enterprises.

What Companies Are Required to Have an Audit?

The following companies must have an audit;

  • An Authorized Insurance Company
  • Those who operate Insurance Market Activity.
  • An Issuer of Electronic Money (E-Money)
  • A Public Company (Unless It's Undeveloped)
  • Those Involved in Banking.
  • A Subsidiary Company (Unless It Be suitable for an Exemption)

Which Companies Are Exempt From Audit?

Small companies meeting explicit criteria may be exempt from audit obligations. Businesses that fall under the exempt category classically include individual proprietaries, branches of foreign companies, and small private companies with limited incomes. However, exemptions differ based on aspects like annual income, assets, and company structures, subject to protocols declared by the Dubai authorities.

Is Capital Required for an LLC in UAE?

The UAE law guides investors to stipulate the worth of capital in merger and company statutes but does not necessitate the least amount for LLC (limited liability companies).

Who Can Be Appointed as an Auditor in a Joint Stock Company?

Under the Companies Act, an auditor of a joint stock Company must have a degree of Chartered accountant within the connotation of the Chartered Accountants Act of 1949. To be a Chartered accountant, he has to pass the CA examination directed by the ICA (Institute of Chartered Accountants) countrywide.